Punjab Geographer Journal All Head Image

Punjab Geographer

Volume 17

October 2021


APG Journal Volume 17

Editor: Dr. H.S. Mangat
Mananging Editor: K. Surjit Singh
Associate Editor: Dr. Omvir Singh


Sachin Pandwar, Omvir Singh: Modeling Magnitude and Frequency of Floods in the Upper Yamuna River Basin, India

Globally, floods are one of the most common hydrological disasters, but their happening to a larger extent is unpredictable. This study, therefore, aims to model the return periods and occurrence probabilities of peak flood discharges in the upper reaches of Yamuna river basin. The study is based on annual peak flood discharge series data (Qmax) available for nine gauge and discharge sites located in the upper Yamuna river basin. Two most commonly used probability distribution models namely Gumbel Extreme Value-I (GEV-I) and Log-Pearson Type-III (LP-III) have been used to estimate peak flood discharges in future. Likewise, two goodness-of-fit (GoF) tests, namely, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) and Anderson-Darling (AD) have been applied to the fitted distributions to identify the best-fit model. The analysis of Qmax series has shown high inter-annual variability, as the Cv ranges between 0.47 (47 per cent) and 1.04 (104.37 per cent). The ratio of observed Qmax and mean annul flood (Qm) indicates that the highest ever recorded flood is about two-to-four times larger than Qm. Hathini Kund gauge and discharge site has recorded the largest ever peak flood discharges of 23,448, 22,837, 21,082 and 20,083 m3/s in the years 2019, 2013, 2010 and 1978, respectively. The probability distribution used for the estimation of return periods with the magnitude of estimated discharge shows that the exceedance probability decreases with increasing time. The positive relationship between observed Qmax and the estimated discharge for different return periods suggests that both GEV-I and LP-III distribution models can be considered satisfactory for flood modeling. However, two goodness-of-fit tests results reveal that LP-III is more robust than GEV-I distribution model for flood modeling in the upper Yamuna river basin. The study may be useful for water resource managers in designing hydraulic structures for the management of floods in future.

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Deepika Vashishtha, Shahab Fazal: Livelihood Status and Sustainability in Rural India: A Geographical Analysis

India is predominantly a rural country. It is witnessing transformations in all its major domains. The rural settlements and their livelihoods are also no exception and witnessing changes in new economic order. The trends suggest that there is declining share of agriculture in the national economy whereas urban population is increasing at a faster rate, which threatens agricultural environs. It also adds complications to rural livelihood sustainability. This study primarily based on the secondary sources of data attempts to evaluate transforming status of rural livelihood sustainability in India. United Nations Development Programme’s normalization method has been incorporated to standardise indicators and a modified form of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Vulnerability Index has been used to develop ‘Sustainable Livelihood Index’ (SLI). This index is taken as a base for formulating ‘Livelihood Ladder’, adapted from the Oxfam Report. Main findings of this paper reveal that there are large scale inter-state disparities for different assets. Central and eastern states of India are found to be poor on livelihood sustainability due to their lower human, social and financial assets index and thus more economically vulnerable to present day shocks and stresses, while southern and northern states are better placed in terms of livelihood sustainability.

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Shamsher Singh, M. S. Jaglan: Cultivation of Vegetable Crops in Haryana: Growth, Spatial Distribution and Concentration Pattern

The present study investigates the growth, spatial distribution and concentration of vegetables cultivation in Haryana. The study is based on secondary data obtained from Directorate of Horticulture, Government of Haryana. It has been carried out in the background of changes induced in cropping pattern during post economic reform period and with reference to three points of time, 1990-91, 2002-03, and 2016-17. The study brings out that cultivation of vegetables in the state has expanded remarkably during the period of two and half decades. In the first phase between 1990-91 and 2002-03, the area under vegetables mainly increased in the eastern parts and also stretched to central and western parts. The second phase (2002-03 to 2016-17) also has witnessed intensification of cultivation of vegetables in the eastern region and its expansion continued in western and southern areas. The state on the whole has recorded quite diversified pattern of cultivation of vegetables. Seven vegetable crop regions have been identified on the basis of area under different types of vegetables. There hardly seems a regional specialization in cultivation of vegetables, although the intensity of vegetable crops has been comparatively high in eastern parts. The cultivation of vegetables can provide impetus to intensification of agriculture and crop diversification with crucial institutional support of the government.

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Mst Sanjida Alam: Evaluation of Preparedness of Schools in Chittagong City of Bangladesh to Face Earthquake Eventualities

An earthquake is a natural disaster and can cause human casualties and severe damage to physical resources. The impact of an earthquake can be shocking in the case of schools because of a mass gathering of the young community. Studies have found that schools are inadequately prepared to face earthquake eventualities. We cannot prevent earthquakes, but we can take precautionary measures to minimize the impact. This research reports the earthquake preparedness status of selected schools in Chittagong (city area) located in one of the most earthquake-prone areas of Bangladesh. The study is based on primary data collected by surveying 45 randomly selected schools in Chittagong. The schools` responses have been collected on eleven indicators associated with the schools` earthquake preparedness levels. The indicators have been evaluated comprehensively by factors analysis. The suitability of factor analysis for the study has been confirmed by Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) Measure, which has been found to be 0.824. The findings highlight that selected schools in the study are not well prepared to face earthquake eventualities. Sixty per cent of the schools do not have a disaster plan, whereas a disaster plan is essential for a mass gathering place such as schools to act in an emergency. Moreover, 67 per cent of the schools are least prepared in more than half of the indicators, risking 28,136 lives. However, no statistically significant results have been found to confirm that the levels of preparedness are based on previous experience of an earthquake. Similarly, strength of population does not induce the school authorities to get prepared for an earthquake. The findings highlight disparities in schools` earthquake preparedness, which may be useful for policy formulation and can contribute towards developing disaster plans in Chittagong and other cities of Bangladesh.

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Sriparna Das, Bimal Kumar Kar: Trend of Urbanization and Emerging Regional Variations in Urban Development in Assam

Urbanization involves socio-economic transformation of people and society from traditional agrarian to modern non-agricultural one. On the other hand, urban development refers to progress in infrastructure facilities for quality living along with socio-economic upliftment of the people living in the urban areas. In fact, the processes of urbanization and urban development in an area generally take place almost simultaneously at varying rates. Globally, the phenomenon of urbanization has been undergoing rapid changes in recent times and the state of Assam is not an exception. However, the state of Assam has witnessed a quite low level of urbanization (14.10 per cent as per 2011 Census) as compared to the national average (31.20 per cent). The growth rate of urban population, which depends on the resource base, resource mobilization and socio-economic transformation of an urban area, has been found to be almost the same in both the state of Assam (2.89 per cent) and India (2.79 per cent) during 1991-2011. The pattern of urbanization in the state is spatially varied and regionally imbalanced.

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Soleman Khan, A K M Anwaruzzaman: Role of Education in Determining Fertility Level among Muslim Women in Rural Areas of West Bengal

Among the various socio-economic factors determining human fertility, education is considered as one of the most important factors. In this study, an attempt has been made to examine the impact of level of educational attainment on the fertility behaviour of Muslim women in rural areas of West Bengal. The present Community Development (CD) block level study is mainly based on primary data, supplemented with secondary data acquired from Census of India (2011). The results derived from the study show that although there is a negative relationship between the level of educational attainment of married Muslim women and their fertility rates, yet it is not always linear in nature. The study shows that the impact of female education on fertility is not notable up to the middle school level education. It is only beyond middle school level of educational attainment that a noteworthy negative impact on the fertility rate of married Muslim women has been observed.

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Rajeshwari, Himanshi: Out of Pocket Expenditure on Health in India with Reference to Socio-Economic Classes in Haryana

Government of India, in its health policy document resolves to strengthen the public health care infrastructure and repeats its commitment to provide basic health to its population. Despite this, the share of public health expenditure in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) remains low and almost constant. It has been observed that the Out of Pocket Expenditure (OOPE) on health has grown many times and it puts financial burden on individual households which pushes the people into poverty. In this context, the present paper attempts to study the pattern of public health and OOPE on health in India and in high income state of Haryana. It also studies the socio-spatial differentials in OOPE on medical expenses in case of hospitalized and non-hospitalized illnesses. The study is based on secondary data drawn from National Health Accounts and household level data about OOPE on health from 71st round of National Sample Survey Organization on Health consumption, for the year 2014. The study reveals that per capita public health expenditure in Haryana is equal to all India average, which does not commensurate to its economic prosperity. The low public health spending is accompanied by high OOPE on health. The socio-spatial variations in OOPE on health reinforces that social status is a strong indicator in accessing curative health care. Further, the financial risk protection measured in terms of insurance coverage is also high among top 20 per cent households and those belonging to non-scheduled caste (SC) and non-other backward castes (OBC) population.

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Ajay Chanjta, D.D. Sharma: Trends and Pattern of Development of Educational Institutions in Rohru Block of Shimla District, Himachal Pradesh

Education plays an important role in the overall development of any region. It strengthens the other sectors by forming human capital and provides human resource to the society. It further shapes the cultural aspects and means and end of economic growth of any region. Development of educational facility is the threshold that can transform all the sectors of social and economic development. In the present study, an attempt has been made to identify the changing pattern and current status of development of educational institutions in Rohru block of Shimla district, Himachal Pradesh. The study reveals that the share of villages having primary school availability increased from 43.37 per cent to 69.82 per cent during the 1991-2019 period. Villages having the availability of middle and high school have also witnessed an increase from 13.25 and 6.63 per cent to 36.09 and 22.48 per cent, respectively. There has not been any senior secondary school at any village during 1991, but 24 new senior secondary schools have been opened during the study period. The study area has a noticeable regional disparity in the levels of development of educational institutions. However, decreasing trends of disparity in the levels of development of educational institutions have been witnessed during the study period.

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Map Series-XIV: R.C. Chandna: Punjab-Haryana Region: Agricultural Sector Workforce

Blessed with high quality primary resource of flat agricultural land, forward looking and hardworking populace, the emergence of Punjab-Haryana region as chief bread-basket of the country was only a natural outcome. Such a bread-basket would normally be expected to have bulk of its workforce engaged in agricultural sector either as cultivator or as agricultural labour. However, as per 2011 Census, the region has 24.67 per cent of its workforce as cultivators and another 13.50 per cent in agricultural labour, together making it only 38.17 per cent in agricultural sector. Thus, in comparison to the national average of agricultural workforce of 50.22 per cent, such a proportion for the study region was much less (38.17 per cent). However, while the proportion of the cultivators in the study region (24.67 per cent) compared fairly well with that for the country, the proportion of agricultural labour fell much short of that in the country. While in the study region only 13.50 per cent of the workforce was engaged in agricultural labour, the corresponding figure for the country was 23.76 per cent i.e., almost double the figure for the study region.

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Doctoral Abstract: Girish Kumar: Vector Borne Diseases with Special Reference to Dengu in Delhi: An Analysis of Distribution and Vulnerability

Health involves health of all the people across the world irrespective of rich and poor and the stages of development. Better health is central to human happiness and well-being. The term health has been defined by WHO as a “state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Thus, the ‘Place of Health and ‘Health of Place’ approach is an important aspect in the study of Medical and Health geography. We occupy space and location and move from place to place. We all have our own ‘geographies’ as well as our biographies. Our health and geographies are inextricably linked.

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Doctoral Abstract: Manoj Kumar: Poultry Farming in Haryana: An Enquiry into its Spatial Organization and Socio-Economic Attributes

Poultry farming in India has undergone a major shift in terms of structure and operation during post liberalization period. From a mere backyard economic activity it has been transformed into a major agri-business with presence of a large number of integrated players. India has emerged as third largest producer of eggs and fifth largest producer of chicken meat in the world. The state of Haryana has become one of the leading producers of poultry products in the country. The poultry farming has also been transformed into a large scale agri-business in the state during the last three decades. It has witnessed an impressive growth in all three types of poultry farming; viz. hatchery (chick production), broiler (chicken production) and layer farming (egg production) since early 1990s.

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Doctoral Abstract: Dinesh Kumar:Causes and Consequences of Floods in Markanda River Basin: A Hydro-Geomorphic Analysis

Floods are the most frequent and devastating natural disasters around the world with a significant impact on human life and the surrounding environment. Flooding on average claims more than 23,000 lives per year over the globe and adversely affects 140 million people each year. Heavy rains, particularly associated with monsoons and tropical cyclones are the most common cause of floods in India. Flood events caused by heavy rainfall over a basin area may lead dam failure resulting havoc for the mankind. Moreover, it is expected that the number of heavy rainfall events will increase and hydrological cycle may intensify, and consequently flooding events may rise in future due to global warming. Floods have both primary and secondary effects. Primary effects are loss of lives and property, damage to infrastructures, ecosystems, cultural values, roads and bridges, while secondary effects include the outbreak of diseases, loss of soil fertility, famine and poverty.

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Doctoral Abstract: Rekha: Socio Economic Structure of Chura Community in Rural Haryana: A Case Study of Jhajjar District

Caste is a basic attribute of the Indian social structure. Traditionally, the Indian society has been governed by the institution of caste. Therefore, caste has operated as an instrument of social ordering. The term ‘caste’ has been first used by Portuguese travelers who came to India in the 16th century. The word caste has been derived from the Portuguese word ‘casta’ meaning ‘race, lineage, breed’ and, originally, ‘pure or unmixed’. The fundamental and core feature of India’s social structure has been its caste system. Even after nearly seventy years of Indian independence, caste remains the symbol and essence of Indian society differentiating it from other societies. It is believed that scheduled castes have been impure and polluted. The scheduled castes are comparatively backward socially and economically as well as politically. The recent past has witnessed a significant improvement in levels of educational attainment among scheduled castes. Growing urbanization and awareness among people residing in countryside towards modern way of life, declining interest among youth in traditional economic activities and increasing occupational mobility have played a pivotal role in overall transformation of the society. It has also been observed that social, economic, educational, cultural and political status of chura community has improved. The present study is an attempt to understand the socio-economic structure of chura community in Jhajjar district of Haryana.

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Doctoral Abstract: Sangeeta Chaudhary: Solid Waste Management-Identifying Land Suitability for Landfill Sites (A Case Study of Jaipur City)

India is facing a sharp contrast between its available services and resources and continuously increasing population. Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is one such service where India has to fill an enormous gap. The MSW management practices followed in India are inefficient and are potential threat to the environment and public health. Disposal of waste in landfill is the most widely used method in MSW management in urban areas, because of its economical acceptability. These landfills or dumping sites are chosen at random without following a scientific procedure thereby causing soil degradation, contamination in the quality of groundwater and other negative economic, environmental and ecological impacts. Therefore, selection of a landfill site is a serious issue in urban planning process due to its implication on economy, ecology, environment and public health. Increasing pressure of population along with high population density and growing urbanization along with industrialization has made this issue more grievous. The sanitary landfill site is an inevitable part of MSW management. Therefore, selection of suitable landfill sites is an important issue to minimize the environmental degradation.

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In Memoriam: Prof. S.S. Dhillon

Prof. S.S. Dhillon was fondly called as Guru Ji by the students of geography department and their friends in Punjabi University,Patiala. He was a true saint in human form. He always has a very supportive and helping attitude towards the problems and limitations of his students. His home and heart were open for all students and employees of the university, irrespective of their department.

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