Punjab Geographer Journal All Head Image

Punjab Geographer

Volume 16


APG Journal Volume 16

Editor: Dr. H.S. Mangat
Mananging Editor: K. Surjit Singh
Associate Editor: Dr. Omvir Singh


P. K. Sharma: Infrastructural Development in Bundelkhand Region: A Micro-level Analysis

Infrastructure development is one of the driving forces to attain swift economic growth. It plays an important role in the reduction of poverty, improvements in standard of living and leads to sustained development of a region. This study is an attempt to analyse the micro-regional disparities in infrastructural development across 40 blocks of Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh. The study is based on secondary sources of data, obtained from various government agencies for the year, 2011. In order to find out the level of infrastructural development, composite score method has been used by considering 12 variables at the block level. The study reveals widespread micro-regional infrastructural disparity, ranging from highest score of 1.34 for Nowgong block to lowest of -0.95 for Buxwaha block. On the basis of Principal Component Analysis, four dominant factors governing the level of infrastructural development in the region have been identified. These key factors may be addressed on priority basis to enhance the living condition of the people and to reduce micro regional disparities.

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Tejpal, Anisha: Prevalence of Respiratory Problems and Musculoskeletal Disorders among Rice Mill Workers in Haryana

Rice mill workers constitute a special group from the perspective of occupational health. Unprotected dust exposure adversely affects their respiratory system which needs to be evaluated. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to find out the prevalence of respiratory problems and musculoskeletal disorders among the rice mill workers of Karnal district in Haryana. A sample of 155 rice mill workers has been taken through random sampling. Workers have been physically examined; lungs functioning tests performed and interviewed using a pre-designed schedule. The study shows that most of the rice mill workers have been suffering from blocked nose (76.77 per cent), phlegm (73.55 per cent) and morning sneezing (72.90 per cent). Among musculoskeletal complaints, weakness is common among 80.0 per cent workers followed by pain in shoulders (65.81 per cent) and back pain (56.13 per cent). Non-use of any protective measures and duration of working in rice mills have been significant predictors of respiratory problems and musculoskeletal disorders among workers. Hence, proper health care and provision of personal protective equipments is essential to reduce the health disorders among the rice mill workers.

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Manoj Deswal, M.S.Jaglan: Spatial Distribution Pattern and Socio-economic Attributes of Broiler Farmers in Haryana

The falling income of farmers has turned into a perpetual agricultural crisis in India. The diversification of rural economy by promoting agri-business like broiler farming may play a key role in tiding over this crisis. The present study evaluates the course of development of broiler farming in Haryana during first two decades of 21st century. The study is primarily based on primary data obtained through field survey of 175 broiler farmers from Bhiwani, Kurukshetra, Karnal, Jind and Mahendergarh districts. The socio-economic attributes of broiler farms in the state have been analyzed with respect to social status (caste groups), economic status and educational status of the broiler farmers. The state has recorded 71 per cent growth rate in the number of broiler farms during the period of 10 years i.e. 2007 to 2017. Analysis reveals that broiler farming is dominated by landowning castes having medium to large landholdings. Most of the broiler farmers are large scale chicken producers, belonging to landowning castes and their farms are also economically more efficient. Educational level of broiler farmers has also a significant bearing on their level of profit.

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Alamtar Ali: Spatial Dimensions of Literacy and Social Development in Uttar Pradesh

Literacy is an indispensable tool for communication, learning and understanding the world around us. It is the first step in educating the people. Thus, it is a vital precondition for individual and national development. Social development is the core of development which leads to the betterment of human quality and life. Therefore, literacy is the axis of social development which is ultimately the supreme virtue of human life. Based on Census data by districts this study attempts to analyze the spatial variations in levels of literacy and social development in the state of Uttar Pradesh. To fulfill the objective, z score, correlation coefficient and t-test techniques have been used in this study. The study reveals that 48 per cent districts of the state have recorded high level of literacy rate, while 45 per cent districts witnessed high level of social development. Similarly, 35 per cent and 39 per cent districts have respectively registered low level of literacy rate and social development. It has been found that 69 per cent districts of the state show remarkable positive relationship between literacy and social development. The analysis reveals that the levels of literacy and social development are relatively high in western and southern parts of Uttar Pradesh.

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Tushar Sarkar, Nuruzzaman Kasemi: Gender Inequality in Literacy and Education among Educationally Backward Scheduled Castes of Maynaguri Block, Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal

In India, access to education varies greatly across caste, gender and ethnic boundaries. The socio-economically backward scheduled castes have been characterised by low level of literacy and educational attainment. While, all members of the backward scheduled castes suffer from caste disadvantage, the females belonging to the backward castes have been doubly disadvantaged in the acquisition of literacy and educational attainment, on account of their social status and gender. Hence, this paper has attempted to study the gender gap in literacy and education among the educationally disadvantaged scheduled castes in Maynaguri block of Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal. The data related to the study have been largely collected through household surveys and personal interviews. Results have shown that females belonging to all four sampled castes are lagging behind their male counterparts in the attainment of education, particularly higher education. Besides, females belonging to Turi caste are much behind the males in attainment of literacy as compared to other castes. The results have shown a low Net Enrolment Ratio (NER) in elementary education among all the castes, while girls have lesser access to elementary education as compared to the boys.

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K.V. Chamar, S. K. Chamar: Access to Sources of Lighting among Households in Rural India

Lighting is the deliberate use of any source of light for illumination. It includes the use of both artificial source of light as well as natural illumination by capturing day light. Proper lighting can enhance task performance and improve the appearance of an area. Hence, availability of proper light has positive psychological effects on the occupants of a household. The present research work is based on district-wise household data on sources of lighting obtained from Census of India, 2011. Percentage technique has been adopted to understand spatial variations in the use of different sources of household lighting at regional, state and district, levels in rural India. The study reveals that 55.31 per cent of rural households in India are dependent on electricity, while 43.15 per cent are using kerosene for household lighting. On the other hand, 0.53 per cent households do not have access to any source of lighting in rural India, hence still living in darkness.

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Pooja Rani, M. S. Jaglan: Levels of Infrastructural Development in Haryana: A Saptio-temporal Analysis

Infrastructure lays the foundation for economic development of a region. The investment in infrastructural sectors is imperative for sustaining the process of economic development as well as reducing the regional disparities in levels of development. The present study analyses the spatial and temporal variations in levels of infrastructural development in Haryana over the period of 2005-06 to 2015-16. The study is based on secondary data collected for 28 indicators associated with eight sectors of infrastructural development. Composite index has been worked out to highlight inter-district variations in levels of infrastructural development. Panchkula and Ambala are found to be most developed districts in terms of availability of infrastructure, whereas, Palwal and Mewat districts of southern Haryana are most backward in infrastructural development. Inter-district disparity has been accentuated with time as percentage of districts recording low and very low level of infrastructural development increased from 21 per cent in 2005-06 to 38 per cent in 2015-16. Creation of infrastructure in these backward areas shall induce the developmental processes leading to reduction in socio-economic disparities in the state.

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Diksha Kumari, B. R. Thakur, Rajan Bhandari: Spatial and Temporal Variations in Educational Attainment in India

The present study aims at examining the progress in levels of educational attainment in India during 1991-2011. The study is entirely based on secondary data collected from Census of India and educational reports of Ministry of Human Resource Development. In order to examine the progress in educational attainment percentage method has been used. The study shows remarkable increase in the growth rate of highly educated people as compared to elementary and secondary educated persons. The study reveals that the share of secondary educated persons increased from 18.60 per cent in 1991 to 24.10 per cent in 2011. Although the share of higher educated persons has increased from 5.67 per cent in 1991 to 8.90 per cent in 2011, yet India is passing through the teething stage of educational attainments where merely 8.90 per cent out of the total literates are highly educated. The study also reveals that educational attainment in India happens to be uneven at the state level which is attributed mainly to the varying educational and developmental infrastructures. The states and union territories equipped with better availability of educational institutes, gross enrolment ratio, urbanization and less poverty fared well in regard to educational attainment.

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Map Series- XIII: R. C. Chandna: Punjab-Haryana Region: Size of the Households of Houseless Population, 2011

Census taking in India is a complete count of country's entire population including all those who either live in a household or those who are known to be residing in the household or even those who do not have a house/institution to live in and are designated as houseless population by the Census. A household is; thus, the primary unit of Census taking in India and consists of usually a group of persons, who normally live together and may or may not have kinship ties, but they take their meals from a common kitchen. Persons living in such a household may be related or unrelated or a mix of both. However, they will qualify for a household only if they take their meals from a common kitchen. Taking meals from a common kitchen is, thus, the qualifying criterion unlike kinship ties which constitute the basis for family although a virtual synonymity between the two also cannot be ruled out, especially in case of houseless population in India.

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Doctoral Abstract: Pankaj: Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Bay of Bengal Tropical Cyclones: 1972-2015

Tropical Cyclones (TCs) are nonfrontal low-pressure systems of synoptic scale with organized convection over tropical and sub-tropical waters. These TCs are among the most powerful and disastrous weather events, which often cause extreme socio-economic impacts in the coastal areas due to strong winds, intense rainfall and high storm surges resulting coastal inundation. Therefore, various researchers have extensively examined the TCs occurrence for different ocean basins world over particularly in the North Atlantic, the western and eastern North Pacific and the Australian region.

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Doctoral Abstract: Ram Juwari: Changing Characteristics of Livestock Economy in Haryana: A Spatio-temporal Analysis

Livestock sector, as an economic activity, is producing about 1.4 per cent of the world's gross domestic product (GDP). This sector accounts for 40-60 per cent of GDP of agricultural production in the world. In India, at current prices the overall contribution of live stock sector has been about 4 per cent of GDP during 2012-13. Livestock alone contributes about 26 per cent of the total value of the output in the agriculture of the country. The overall share of animal husbandry, in the GDP of Haryana, at current prices has been about 6.4 per cent during 2014-15. The contribution of this sector, towards the agricultural GDP, is around 36 per cent in the state. However, the significance of livestock economy in Haryana lies beyond economic sphere as well. It plays a very important role in providing food security and animal protein to the people. It supplements the income of farmers and has emerged as a big source of income for the economically weaker sections of the society.

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Doctoral Abstract: Kiran Bala: Living Environment and Health Status of Slum Population in Hisar City

The twenty-first century has undergone a tremendous change where urbanization and industrialization have marked an important imprint on the sustainability of population growth. One of the distressing manifestations of urbanization is the sporadic growth of slums. It is a problem which grows along with urbanization. Poverty and deficit of housing in rapidly growing cities are the reasons for the emergence of slums. Exodus of rural population to urban areas plays a major role in the creation of slums. In India, majority of urban centres are facing the problem of slums. Likewise, Hisar city of Haryana is also facing this problem. Hisar, being a counter magnet city of Delhi, attracts large number of migrants from its surrounding rural areas, many of which belong to low income groups. These migrants are the prime factor in proliferation of slums in the city.

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Doctoral Abstract: Preeti: Violence Against Women in Public and Private Spaces in Haryana

Violence against women is a worldwide phenomenon and women are subject to violence throughout their life cycle. The United Nations defines violence against women “as any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life”. The study attempts to highlight violence against women in private and public spaces. The distinction between public and private space is made on the basis of accessibility, interference and freedom. The present study is focused on Haryana which is one of the economically developed states of India.

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Doctoral Abstract: Tejpal: Extraction of Construction Material in Aravalli Region of Haryana and Delhi: Its Spatial Pattern, Ecological Hazards and Economic Impacts

The mining industry meant for extraction of construction material is expanding very fast in India since independence. The growth of construction activity, in Delhi and surrounding National Capital Region in Haryana, has generated huge demand for concrete and sand. As a result, Aravalli region in Haryana and Delhi has experienced large-scale legal as well as illegal mining of construction material, without caring the provisions made through several central legislations for conservation of environment and mineral resources. Illegal quarrying is a common practice, although Supreme Court has banned mining of construction material in the surrounding areas of Delhi since May, 2009. Lack of sufficient information regarding the negative effects of extraction activities has led to environmental degradation in these areas. Therefore, the present study is aimed at exploring the distribution and concentration pattern of extraction sites of construction material and their impacts on the ecology and environment of the surrounding areas.

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Doctoral Abstract: Madhu Bala: Spatio-temporal Analysis of Economic Characteristics of Population in Rural Haryana: (1991-2001)

The attribute of workforce and its distribution into various industrial categories, despite its vast significance to planning, has received less attention of geographers in comparison to other attributes of population such as growth, sex ratio, literacy etc. The occupational structure reveals the level of development of economy as well as type and nature of economic activities in which people are engaged. The change in workforce structure is one of the most important indicators of the economic development of a region. The main working force has special significance as they are engaged in economic activities during the major part of the year. Hence, the study of main working force has a great significance. Likewise, women also constitute a significant part in the workforce structure. Female work participation in economic activities is one of the important indicators of their empowerment. The present study is focused on rural areas because about 68 per cent of population in India lives in villages. The rural society of India has faced both social and economic problems since the ages.

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Doctoral Abstract: Ankita: Dynamic and Pattern of Social and Economic Development in Ahirwal Region of Haryana

Development is a process which culminates in improving and sustaining the quality of life of people. It is a value positive concept which represents the change for betterment. It is a process devised to progressively improve the social and economic conditions of the people. Development is a dynamic concept and measured in terms of various parameters like economic growth, education, health services, degree of modernization, status of women, level of nutrition, housing condition, distribution of goods and services and access to communication. Development has a spatial and temporal context too. The level of development in a region is generally estimated separately for economic, demographic, educational, health, infrastructural and environmental sustainability parameters. Disparities in social and economic development across the regions and intra-regional disparities among different segments of the society have been the major area of concern that has also guided the planning in India since independence.

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Doctoral Abstract: Md. Nurul Hoda: Impact of Urbanization on Tribal Arts and Culture: A Case Study of Ranchi

Urbanization is the driver of social and cultural change, and it shapes the social relations of the society. The impact of urbanization on the tribal community is also visible. The tribal society, in more than one way, is self-contained; it is ‘a cultural isolate’ as its social organization and way of life is different from other communities. It has restricted relations with mainstream society. Until recently, the essential criteria for defining this segment of humans had been their relative isolation, homogeneity, and settlement in a distinct habitat. Primitiveness, economic backwardness, lower levels of development, pre-agricultural technology, low literacy rates, and a small population are other characteristics of the tribal population.

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Doctoral Abstract: Sanjay Kumar: Cotton Cultivation in Haryana: A Spatio-temporal Exploration

The cotton cultivation in India is currently in the domain of public discussion due to increasing cost of production, falling level of yield and various economic and ecological problems faced by the farmers. With the increase in the cost of inputs viz., fertilizers, pesticides and labour etc. during post liberalization period, the cost of cotton cultivation has gone up. Moreover, unseasonal rainfall, incidence of pests and diseases cause heavy losses to the cultivation of cotton. Haryana holds an important position in cotton cultivation in India. With 1.44 per cent of the total geographical area of the country, it accounts for about 5 per cent of the country's total area under cotton. The importance of cotton in the economy of the state can be gauged by the fact that it is mainstay of over 21.50 per cent working population and accounts for about 26.28 per cent of state's agricultural income during the kharif season.

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Book Review: Gopal Krishan: Punjab and Haryana Annals of Development

The title of the book 'Punjab and Haryana' proclaims that it is a story of two twin brothers. That is actually what these two states are. Both were born in their present form on November 1st, 1966 as a consequence of reorganization of the former Punjab on linguistic lines. Punjab emerged as a Punjabi majority state and Haryana a Hindi majority one. The two differed in their physical and human resource base, with Haryana lagging behind on development ladder. The two were not expected to follow a similar path of development, though in constant competition with each other. This is the tale which the present book tells.

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In Memoriam: Prof. Jasbir Singh

It is very difficult to write in memoriam of a beloved teacher who has been an instrument in shaping your destiny like Prof. Jasbir Singh, an internationally renowned Agricultural Geographer. I still remember the way he was teaching and making the subject clear to the students. In fact, teaching of Agricultural Geography for him was not more than the narration of his personal experiences of farming to the students. He used to say in the class that farming is such a beneficial and profitable venture that a farmer can produce everything except salt in his fields and therefore he cannot die due to hunger. He was known for his punctuality and discipline in the class and no one could dare to entre his class once he was in. His demise on June 19, 2020 at Fresno, California in USA was shocking for all those who have been associated with him as students or otherwise.

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In Memoriam: Prof. R. D. Dikshit

December 24, 2019 was a sad day for me. My esteemed teacher and a highly rated geographer in the field of Political Geography, Prof. Ramesh Dutta Dikshit, passed away at Gurugram (Haryana). Born in village Mahuatar (maternal village), Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh), on November 3, 1939, Ramesh Dutta Dikshit was the third of four children of (late) Bal Dev Dikshit and (late) Roopkali Chaube. His paternal village was Gopalpur, district Ghazipur (Uttar Pradesh). His early life was very difficult. He lost his father in March, 1941. He grew up with all possible support from his maternal uncles, who by virtue of their being in the field of education guided him.

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